Authors: Gao J, Ward JF, Pettaway CA, Shi LZ, Subudhi SK, Vence LM, Zhao H, Chen J, Chen H, Efstathiou E, Troncoso P, Allison JP, Logothetis CJ, Wistuba I, Sepulveda MA, Sun J, Wargo J, Blando J, Sharma P
Issue: 2017 May;23(5):551-555
To date, anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) or anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) monotherapy has not been demonstrated to be of substantial clinical benefit in patients with prostate cancer. To identify additional immune-inhibitory pathways in the prostate-tumor microenvironment, we evaluated untreated and ipilimumab-treated tumors from patients in a presurgical clinical trial. Levels of the PD-L1 and VISTA inhibitory molecules increased on independent subsets of macrophages in treated tumors. Our data suggest that VISTA represents another compensatory inhibitory pathway in prostate tumors after ipilimumab therapy.