Authors: Jordan, Kimberly R.; Sikora, Matthew J.; Slansky, Jill E.; Minic, Angela; Richer, Jennifer K.; Moroney, Marisa R.; Hu, Junxiao; Wolsky, Rebecca J.; Watson, Zachary L.; Yamamoto, Tomomi M.; Costello, James C.; Clauset, Aaron; Behbakht, Kian; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Bitler, Benjamin G.
Issue: Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Dec 1;26(23):6362-6373.
Purpose: Ovarian cancer has one of the highest deaths to incidence ratios across all cancers. Initial chemotherapy is effective, but most patients develop chemoresistant disease. Mechanisms driving clinical chemo-response or -resistance are not well-understood. However, achieving optimal surgical cytoreduction improves survival, and cytoreduction is improved by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). NACT offers a window to profile pre- versus post-NACT tumors, which we used to identify chemotherapy-induced changes to the tumor microenvironment. Experimental Design: We obtained matched pre- and post-NACT archival tumor tissues from patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (patient, n = 6). We measured mRNA levels of 770 genes (756 genes/14 housekeeping genes, NanoString Technologies), and performed reverse phase protein array (RPPA) on a subset of matched tumors. We examined cytokine levels in pre-NACT ascites samples (n = 39) by ELISAs. A tissue microarray with 128 annotated ovarian tumors expanded the transcriptional, RPPA, and cytokine data by multispectral IHC. Results: The most upregulated gene post-NACT was IL6 (16.79-fold). RPPA data were concordant with mRNA, consistent with elevated immune infiltration. Elevated IL6 in pre-NACT ascites specimens correlated with a shorter time to recurrence. Integrating NanoString (n = 12), RPPA (n = 4), and cytokine (n = 39) studies identified an activated inflammatory signaling network and induced IL6 and IER3 (immediate early response 3) post-NACT, associated with poor chemo-response and time to recurrence. Conclusions: Multiomics profiling of ovarian tumor samples pre- and post-NACT provides unique insight into chemo-induced changes to the tumor microenvironment. We identified a novel IL6/IER3 signaling axis that may drive chemoresistance and disease recurrence.