We’ve rebranded some of our products, learn more ›

CODEX® is now PhenoCycler,
Phenoptics™ is now Phenolmager.

Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment

Authors: Mungenast, Felicitas; Fernando, Achala; Nica, Robert; Boghiu, Bogdan; Lungu, Bianca; Batra, Jyotsna; Ecker, Rupert C.


Issue: Genes (Basel). 2021 Apr 7;12(4):538.


Progress in cancer research is substantially dependent on innovative technologies that permit a concerted analysis of the tumor microenvironment and the cellular phenotypes resulting from somatic mutations and post-translational modifications. In view of a large number of genes, multiplied by differential splicing as well as post-translational protein modifications, the ability to identify and quantify the actual phenotypes of individual cell populations in situ, i.e., in their tissue environment, has become a prerequisite for understanding tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The need for quantitative analyses has led to a renaissance of optical instruments and imaging techniques. With the emergence of precision medicine, automated analysis of a constantly increasing number of cellular markers and their measurement in spatial context have become increasingly necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to different pathways of disease progression in individual patients. In this review, we summarize the joint effort that academia and industry have undertaken to establish methods and protocols for molecular profiling and immunophenotyping of cancer tissues for next-generation digital histopathology—which is characterized by the use of whole-slide imaging (brightfield, widefield fluorescence, confocal, multispectral, and/or multiplexing technologies) combined with state-of-the-art image cytometry and advanced methods for machine and deep learning.