Authors: Vellky, Jordan E.; Ricke, Emily A.; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A.
Issue: Am J Pathol . 2021 Jan;191(1):168-179.
Differentiating between indolent and aggressive prostate cancers (CaP) is important to decrease overtreatment and increase survival for men with the aggressive disease. Nucleolar prominence is a histologic hallmark of CaP; however, the expression, localization, and functional significance of specific nucleolar proteins have not been investigated thoroughly. The nucleolar protein block of proliferation 1 (BOP1) is associated with multiple cancers but has not been implicated in CaP thus far. Meta-analysis of publicly available data showed increased BOP1 expression in metastatic CaP and recurrent CaP, and was inversely associated with overall survival. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry was used to analyze expression and localization of BOP1 and nucleolar protein 56 in human tissue samples from various stages of CaP progression. Here, increased BOP1 expression was observed at later stages of CaP progression, coinciding with a localization change from nuclear to cytoplasmic. In patient samples, cytoplasmic BOP1 was also inversely associated with overall survival. In models of prostate cancer progression, BOP1 expression showed expression and localization similar to that in human patient samples. The functional significance of BOP1 in metastatic CaP was assessed by genetic knockdown, where BOP1 knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation and motility compared with control. Taken together, these data suggest prognostic significance of BOP1 expression and localization in CaP progression and provide a foundation for further investigation into the functional role of nucleolar proteins in advanced CaP.