Authors: Moore, Erika M.; Maestas, David R.; Cherry, Chris C.; Garcia, Jordan A.; Comeau, Hannah Y.; Huyer, Locke Davenport; Blosser, Richard L.; Rosson, Gedge D.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.
B cells are an adaptive immune target of biomaterials development in vaccine research but, despite their role in wound healing, have not been extensively studied in regenerative medicine. To probe the role of B cells in biomaterial scaffold response, we evaluated the B cell response to biomaterial materials implanted in a muscle wound using a biological extracellular matrix (ECM), as a reference for a naturally derived material, and synthetic polyester polycaprolactone (PCL), as a reference for a synthetic material. In the local muscle tissue, small numbers of B cells are present in response to tissue injury and biomaterial implantation. The ECM materials induced mature B cells in lymph nodes and antigen presentation in the spleen. The synthetic PCL implants resulted in prolonged B cell presence in the wound and induced an antigen-presenting phenotype. In summary, the adaptive B cell immune response to biomaterial induces local, regional, and systemic immunological changes.