Authors: Sena, Laura A.; Salles, Daniela C.; Engle, Elizabeth L.; Zhu, Qingfeng; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Lotan, Tamara L.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.
Issue: Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2021
Parenchymal brain metastases from prostate cancer are unusual and are associated with poor prognosis. Given the rarity of this entity, little is known about its molecular and histologic characteristics. Here we describe a patient with metastatic castration-resistant, mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) prostate cancer with parenchymal brain metastases. Genomic analysis of a brain metastasis revealed MLH1 loss consistent with dMMR, yet few tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). He was treated with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), and exhibited an extra-CNS systemic response but CNS progression. Subsequent assessment of a brain metastasis following ICB treatment surprisingly showed increased TIL density and depletion of macrophages, suggestive of an enhanced antitumor immune response. Post-treatment tumoral DNA sequencing did not reveal acquired mutations that might confer resistance to ICB. This is the first description of ICB therapy for a patient with prostate cancer with parenchymal brain metastases, with pre- and post-treatment immunogenomic analyses.